1. Governments have built new roads.
1). 在句首加上时间状语in the past two years;
3). 在名词roads后面加上定语从句which have brought much convenience to the local citizens.
In the past two years, responsible governments have built a great number of new roads which have brought much convenience to the local citizens.
2. Factories have discharged gases and liquids.
2). 在名词gases and liquids后面加上一个定语从句which have had a seriously negative impact on the surrounding environment.
The newly-built chemical factories have discharged harmful and even poisonous gases and liquids which have had a seriously negative impact on the surrounding environment.
1. 动名词：Cheating on tests repeatedly invites self-defeat.
2. 过去分词：Forgotten on the desk was her favorite i-phone.
3. 名词性从句：What was needed in reality was not taught in school.
4. 代词：Such is the case when a new policy is made.
5. 介词：From the shortage arises the demand for nuclear power as a new copyfrom of energy.
6. 副词：Too often, students are forced to cheat on tests.
7. 形容词：Basic to any understanding of Japan after World War II is its impressive population’s growth.
1） What invites self-defeat is cheating on tests repeatedly.
2） To cheat on tests repeatedly is to invite self-defeat.
3） Repeated cheating on tests invites self-defeat.
4） It is repeated cheating on tests that invites self-defeat.
5） Whoever cheats on tests is to invite self-defeat.
… and the old ways of earning a living rivaled by new agricultural techniques, by commerce with hitherto unknown parts of the globe, and by new crafts with strange machines that saved labor and that ran without the traditional human or animal power
Almost everything which really matters and which the world possessed at the commencement of the modern age was already known to man at the dawn of history.
And it helps to explain why so many inventions that were of Chinese origin or that had been known to the Greco-Romans, were fully developed and exploited only by the Western Europeans.
Consequently the manor was a self-sufficient village that was worked by serfs who were not free to leave, and who with their labor supported a hierarchy of lay and clerical lords.
Not surprisingly, the most complex political structures appeared in the Sudan, where long distance trade was most highly developed and where Islamic influence was the strongest.
Our aim is to establish in Ghana a strong and progressive society …where poverty and illiteracy no longer exist and disease is brought under control；and where our educational facilities provide all the children of Ghana with the best possible opportunities for the development of their potentialities.
This hope was nurtured by the great victories won by Genghis Khan's grandson, Hulagu, who was a Buddhist, and whose wife was a Christian.
1. Berlin states that both positions harbor the same fallacy.
Both positions, ironically enough, as Berlin points out, harbor the same fallacy.
2. Teenagers are pressured by schoolwork. They are encouraged by their peers. They have to resort to smoking like adults. But sometimes they feel a little guilty.
Teenagers, pressured by schoolwork and encouraged by their peers, often resort to smoking like adults, though they feel a little guilty.
3. Some people succeed. Other people fail. The difference is not the number of opportunities. It is whether they can take advantage of opportunities. Opportunities will arise in the course of one’s life, though they are rare.
One essential difference between those who succeed and those who fail is the extent to which they take advantage of opportunities, rather than the total number of opportunities, which will inevitably arise, if rarely, in the course of one’s life.
4. College students now are primarily interested in grades and economic success. They are expected to cheat more frequently. They are unlike those graduated ten years ago. They are only interested in their own personal future and consider little the problems of society.
College students, primarily interested in grades and economic success, are expected to cheat more frequently than those who graduated ten years ago, and are far less concerned with the with the problems of society than with their own personal future.
5. Energy is much needed now. And nuclear plants are clean and economical. They can produce vast amounts of energy. But people, especially local residents are very concerned about safety. They hold a strong negative attitude toward them.
Nuclear plants are a clean and economical way of producing vast amounts of much-needed energy, though people, especially local residents, who are very concerned about safety, hold a strong negative attitude toward them.