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雅思阅读倒装句分析

发布时间:
2019-11-11 02:09:58
编辑:
mengqing
摘要:       英语句子通常有两种语序,一种是自然语序(NaturalOrder),又称正装语序,另一种便是本章要介绍的倒装语序(InvertedOrder)。从形式上分,倒装有两种:全部倒装(FullInversion)和部分倒装…

        英语句子通常有两种语序,一种是自然语序(Natural Order),又称正装语序,另一种便是本章要介绍的倒装语序(Inverted Order)。

  从形式上分,倒装有两种:全部倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion)。谓语动词全部位于主语之前的称作全部倒装,例如:In front of me stood a boy. (我面前站着一个男孩。)只将谓语动词的一部分(通常是助动词或情态动词)放在主语之前的称作部分倒装,例如:Only in this way can we do it better. (只有这样,我们才能做得更好一些)从使用目的区分,倒装也有两种情况,即语法倒装(Grammatical Inversion)和修辞倒装(Rhetorical Inversion)。语法倒装是由于语法规则的要求而必须进行的倒装,例如:Who called me just now?(刚才谁打给我?)修辞倒装是出于修辞的需要而把正常语序转为倒装语序,例如:Out rushed the children.(孩子们冲了出去)H·Fowler归纳倒装的原因有九种,即疑问、命令、惊叹、假设、平衡、衔接、点题(signpost)、否定和 韵律(metrical)。这并不完全,还应加上强调和为使描写更加生动两种。在英语中,倒装句俯拾即是,用得非常普遍,但汉语却很少用,所以在翻译倒装 句时,仍应按原文词序翻译,并照顾汉语的习惯,以保持译文句子结构流畅、匀称。本章只列举在阅读文章中常遇到的倒装现象,以使考生熟悉英语和汉语在语序上 的差异。

  1. Jack London poured into his writings all the pain of his life,the fierce hatred of the bourgeoisie that it had produced in him,and the conviction it had brought to him that the world could be made a better place to live in if the exploited would rise up and take the management of society out of the hands of the exploiters.

  *层:Jack London 主 poured 谓 into his writings 状 all the pain 宾 of his life,定 the fierce hatred 宾 of the bourgeoisie 定 that it had produced in him ,定语从句1 and 连 the conviction 宾 it had brought to him 定语从句2 that the world could be made a better place to live in if the exploited would rise 同位语从句 up and take the management of society out of the hands of the exploiters .

  第二层:(定语从句1)that 引 it 主 had produced 谓 in him 状

  (定语从句2)it 主 had brought to 谓 him 间宾

  (同位语从句)that 引 the world 主 could be made 谓 a better place 宾 to live in 定 if the exploited would rise up and take the man- 状语从句 agement of society out of the hands of the exploiters.

  第三层:(状语从句)if 引 the exploited 主 would rise up 谓 and 连 take 谓 the management 宾 of society 定 out of the hands of the exploiters 状

  要点 本句为倒装句。如果宾语较长或宾语结构比较复杂,往往将宾语后置,采用倒装语序,以使句子保持平衡。本句的宾语由三个并列的名词构成,且第二和第三个名词 后又带有限定性定语从句,故采用倒装语序,将动词poured的宾语放在状语into his writings之后。all the pain……,the fierce hatred……和the conviction……是poured的三个并列的宾语;其中,*个that引导的定语从句修饰hatred,it had brought to him修饰conviction,在该定语从句中其关系代词作宾语而被省略;第二个that从句则是conviction的同位语从句。

  译文 杰克·伦敦在作品中倾注了他一生中所遭受过的一切痛苦,倾诉了这种痛苦在他心中产生的对资产阶级的刻骨仇恨以及由此产生的这样的信念:如果被剥削者起来反抗,从剥削者手中夺回社会管理权,那么世界就会变成一个人人有好日子过的地方。

  2. Along with them goes social mobility,ambition to rise in the urban world,a main factor in bringing down the births in Europe in the nineteenth century.

  分析:Along with them 状 goes 谓 social 定 mobility,主 ambition 主 to rise in the 定 urban world,a main factor 同位语 in bringing down the births in Europe in the nineteenth century. 定

  要点 这是一个完全倒装句,主语是social mobility……century,谓语动词是goes.ambition to rise in the urban world 是对 social mobility的进一步说明。a main factor在意思上相当于which is a main factor in……century,修饰 ambition to ……world.本句可按原文顺序翻译。

 译文 伴随他们而来的是社会的流动性,人们强烈地希望在城市里发展,这是19世纪欧洲出生率下降的主要因素。

  3. For example,they do not compensate for gross social inequality,and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.

  要点 句中had he grown up …… 是虚拟条件中省略if的倒装结构。翻译时,要把if的含义译出。主句为并列谓语…… compensate …… , and …… tell结构。句中how引导宾语从句。虚拟条件句为宾语从句的状语。根据汉语的表达习惯,条件状语常前置。

  译文 例如,它们并不弥补明显的社会不公;因此,它们说明不了一个物质条件差的年轻人,如果在较好的环境下成长,会有多大的才干。

  4. So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

  要点 本句的基本结构是the children become so involved with their computers that……。因为把so involved with their computers 放在了句首,所以句子必须倒装。因为该句的动词是become,所以用do来帮助倒装。翻译时宜用正装语序。

  译文 参加计算机夏令营的孩子们对计算机如此着迷,以至夏令营的负责人常常不得不强迫他们停下来参加体育运动或做游戏。

  5. As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized,it is in the interest of business to universalize access - after all,the more people online,the more potential customers there are.

  要点 破折号后面的部分是用来解释句子主句的,在结构上是部分倒装句,属(从句)the+比较级……,(主句) the +比较级句型,这样的句子一般主谓不倒装。翻译时可用正装。universalize:使普遍化;使通用化。

       译文 随着国际互联网越来越商业化,普及上网会对商家有利,因为上网的人越多,潜在的顾客数量就越多。

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