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专家指导:如何让你的议论文有话可写

发布时间:2018-12-10 17:16 来源:朗阁培训中心 编辑:朗阁小编
为了帮助考生们更好地复习考试,镇江朗阁小编为各位考生整理了专家指导:如何让你的议论文有话可写,供考生们参考使用。
<  为了帮助考生们更好地复习考试,镇江朗阁小编为各位考生整理了专家指导:如何让你的议论文有话可写,供考生们参考使用。
     议论文,作为雅思写作中举足轻重的一部分,锻炼的是烤鸭们在遇到一个受人关注的话题时说理和自圆其说的能力,它培养的不仅是考生在应试时的临场反应能力,更是将来在国外生存时完成essay以及与他人沟通和交谈的能力。因此在雅思写作考试中,议论文占了将近三分之二的分值。
  雅思官方对该篇作文的字数要求为不少于250字,此要求和国外留学时所需要的1000字起步的essay相比虽存在差距,但已经使许多考生头疼不已。为什么如此多的中国考生在写作过程中存在字数不达标和无话可说的情况,归根结底是由于对议论文思路扩展的那些重要切入点不够了解,没有掌握说理时的方法和技巧。下面专家将对论文思路扩展方法一一分析。
  一、因果推理法
  所谓议论文,最关键之处在于论述得当。支持句应使主题句更加令人信服,令考生的想法更加鲜明的呈现在考官面前。然而,中国考生在论述时往往存在一些误区:
  (一)一味重复主题,空洞解释。此类段落不论字数多少,都给人空虚的感觉。考生往往为了凑足篇幅而“不择手段”。表面看来扩展了许多,但仔细体会永远只有一个意思。不得不让考官觉得即单调又啰嗦。
  (二)论述浮于表面,不达根源。这类考生往往缺乏刨根究底的精神,总是在主旨周围绕圈子,不达中心。这也是中国考生的通病,看似八九不离十,却总也不愿把话点破,让考官怎能不又急又气。
  在所有的扩展方式之中,因果推理法是最受用也是最透彻的方法。凡事先追溯到其原由,再扩展其结果,这是将主题阐述清晰、论述有力并且具有逻辑感的最佳手段。例如在“出国留学利弊”这一题目之前,若考生单纯说“有可能会使青少年学坏”,难免缺乏说服力,但若紧接着扩展“因为孩子高中毕业后思想上还不成熟,若认识不好的朋友会难以抵抗社会上不好的诱惑”,那么此论点一定会让考官眉头舒展,点头认同。由此可见,善用此推理法会让议论文如虎添翼,事半功倍。
  引出原因的表达方式主要有:Because../Since.../As....
  引出结果的表达方式主要有:so.../Therefore,.../Consequently,.../Accordingly,... /As a result,.../In this way,.../result in.../Thanks to.../Due to.../ Owing to..
  【写作真题】Aircrafts have been increasingly used to transport fruits and vegetables to some countries where such plants hardly grow or ate out of season. Some people consider it a good trend, but some people oppose it. Discuss.
  【名师献计】It is important to note that imports are now increasingly affordable to the general population. Thanks to the rapid development of the freight transport industry, air travel has become an economical mode of transport, resulting in the subsequent decrease in the cost of importing. Meanwhile, technical advance in the food processing industry has made it much easier to preserve fresh fruits and vegetables over a long-haul air flight. Because of the wide availability of imported crops, there are more varieties...
  二、举例法
  雅思考试有条写作指令叫做:Include relevant examples from your own experience. 所以很多考生在考试时都喜欢使用举例法(exemplification)。这一扩展方式本身无可厚非,然而在使用时几种例子是不适合的。
  (一)局限于自己或朋友的例子。此类例子往往缺乏客观性和说服力,由于第一人称的局限导致所叙述事件难免“鸡毛蒜皮”。要明白,个人不代表整体。
  例:I keep my dog to avoid my loneliness and I find a lot of fun.
  这样的例子让人犹如在看记叙文,和议论文很不搭调。
  (二)引用过多数据。太多专业数据会给人捏造的痕迹,缺乏真实性。考官会质疑数据的出处。
  例:A survey indicates that the number of people smoking has increased to as high as 65 percent in China.(一项调查显示。。。)
  "65%"让文章看起来有些假,有捏造的嫌疑。"A survey"又不够具有代表性。
  (三)中国式的例子。一个国家同样难代表世界。雅思是international的考试,不应将范围框的太局限。此外考官来自各个国家,过分使用一个国家的例子会引起他们的反感。
  例:Many children in China like to play computer games for a long time, leading to their poor eyesight.
  只需小小改动便可成为成功范例。
  因此,首先考生应了解,举例是一种常见的论述方式,特别在论述某一些比较抽象的话题的时候(比如文化类或跟艺术相关的话题)。但是,并不是每个段落都需要例证法,举例过多或过分牵强会影响文章的正式感,甚至给考官喋喋不休的感觉。
  举例是为了更加形象地叙述事情。提醒考生们要注意以下原则:
  (一) 要来源于生活,要具有生动的论述效果。不能过于空洞,也不能脱离现时,否则就失去了举例的意义。
  (二) 要客观表达。虽然来源于身边社会,但不可让描述方式变的太鸡毛蒜皮,拿不上台面。其实这点非常容易办到,只需要把事件中某一个具体的你,我,他,变成是客观群体,比如说people across the globe, students, they之类的人称即可。
  举例的常见表达方式: for example,/for instance,(后加句子)
  Such as/ like (后加词组)
  Take... as an example,
  A case in point is that......
  其次,在举例时还应注意尺度。
  1. 应避免使用第一人称和第二人称,为了加强客观性,应将人称写成第三人称。
  改正:Those people who raise pets, such as dogs and cats, are more likely to gain happiness and relieve their loneliness.(那些养宠物,例如养猫和养狗的人往往更容易获得快乐并且缓解孤独感)
  2. 应避免引用一项调查研究,并同时伴有过多数据。应将数据去掉,用含糊的方法表示。
  改正:There is much evidence to show that the number of people smoking has increased at an alarming rate in China. (大量证据表明。。。)
  3. 应避免将例子局限在一个国家,尤其是中国。应将范围放至全世界。
  改正:Many children around the world like to sit in front of the screen for a long time, leading to their poor eyesight.(在全世界,许多孩子在屏幕前待太久,导致了他们的视力减弱。
  “全世界”的表达方式:around the world, all over the world, across the globe
  【写作真题】The advocates of international aid believe that countries have a moral obligation to help each other, while the opponents consider it necessary, because money is misspent by the governments that receive it. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  【名师献计】This aid is essential to the homeless and useful in helping recipient countries return to their normal state after major disturbances. For example, with the humanitarian relief obtained worldwide on an annual basis, victims of natural disasters (such as tsunami, drought, flood) throughout the world can recover rapidly and rebuild their homeland.
    三、对比法
  有比较才能鉴别。比较是认识事物的重要方法,是发现发明的一把钥匙。所谓对比法,就是把正反两方面的论点和论据加以剖析和对照,达到否定错误观点、树立正确观点的目的。很多情况下,往往只是简单的一个参照物,却足以使人产生强烈认同感。比如你想说明email的好处,如果不断说它很好啊,很方便啊,很造福人类啊等等,无疑会使人厌烦。但若是拿email和letter相比,那么不用说太多,读者自然会一目了然。
  但是,专家提醒考生们,运用对比法时要特别注意所选取的“对体”的正与误,是与非,新与旧的区别要非常明显,要有突出的互相对应的关系;并且必须要对所论述的对象的矛盾本质有深刻的认识。可以是人对人,也可以是物对物。
  引导对比的方式主要有:
  compared with A, B.....
  Unlike A, B...
  By contrast, / on the contrary,
  【写作真题】In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies .Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people to do this.
  【名师献计】The reasons for this trend may involve the recognition that a young adult who passes directly from school to university is rather restricted in terms of general knowledge and experience of the world. By contrast, those who have spent some time earning a living or traveling to other places have a broader view of life and better resources to draw on. They tend to be more independent, which is a very important factor in academic study and research as well as giving them an advantage in terms of coping with the challenges in student life.
  四、类比法
  所谓类比法,就是借助某个或某几个类似的故事、实例或者作者安排的情境,进行由此及彼的推理过程。
  在使用类比法时要注意两个要素:
  (一)所选取的“类体”要同类,不能相对或相反。要和“对比法”严格区分开来,这样才能达到不同的论述效果。
  (二)在类比之后要剖析,要善于揭示,一语破的,一针见血。要杜绝“只罗列,不评论”的误区。再多的论据最终只为了服从于一个结论。考生要懂得适时将话点破,直接给出评论和类比的结果,否则再好的论述都形同摆设。
  类比法通常用于一些较抽象的论点,为了让其更加清晰,所以借助一些被大家所熟知的事例来加强说明。既然是众所周知,那么用于类比的事物大致有这么几种:古今中外的史实,神话传说、寓言,写作者自己创设的情境等。如果选取的类比素材合适,无疑会让作者的思路更好的被人理解。但如果类比所用的事物比较生僻,显然达不到预期的效果。
  因此掌握运用好这一把写作创新的钥匙,不但可以在写作中提高思维效力,而且还可以增强鉴别、选择、判定和运思能力。
  引出类比内容的方式主要有:
  By the same token, / similarly
  【写作真题】Some people think that teaching children of different abilities together benefits everyone. But some people believe that the intelligent students should be taught separately and be given special treatment. Discuss both and give your own opinion.
  【名师献计】Proponents of separate teaching argue that students with different abilities should be divided into different classrooms or even different school. They cite that in the sports world, records are always created when a sportsman is facing tough competition. They believe that, by the same token, in a classroom where clever minds meet, students can achieve their best due to peer pressure.
  五、解释说明法
  解释说明法,是其中一条有力的扩展补充方式,它可以将之前某一个不够清晰的想法加以阐述,说明及解释,让考官心中有数的同时,也让文章字数更加充实。
  但专家提醒考生们在使用时要注意两条要素:
  (一)一味改写之前的句子。这类考生已经为字数愁白了头,俨然有点“不择手段”的意思。以为解释就是重写,只是改动几个单词。换位思考,若你看到某篇文章总是出现极其相似的句式,更糟糕的是意思还完全一样,会不会有种被糊弄的感觉?
  (二)一再的句意重复。这类现象尤为普遍。许多考官对中国考生的文章甚为头疼。看似写了许多,但细看来却永远在说同一句话。往往一句简单的意思翻来覆去偏要讲3遍,却始终得不到新鲜的信息来有力支持。这样的文章写来何意?要记住:考官不是3岁孩子,不是任何东西都需要解释的。
  因此,解释说明法只适用于一些个人觉得意思不是特别明确的句子之后,用更加简明的方式去补充说明主题句的意思或原因,并且要从整个句式上发生大幅度改变,目的是将某句阐述的更加清楚。此法只作为补充的方式,不可在同一篇文章中使用过多。
  用于解释的引导方式主要有:
  In other words, / That is to say,
  ..... , which means that....
  让我们来看一个例子:
  【写作真题】Some people say that online learning is the most effective and convenient way to learn. Others say that online learning will never be as effective as learning at a real school in person. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  【名师献计】While there are a couple of drawbacks with online learning ,there are many more advantages. One of the most significant issues is the pace of learning. Students can learn without distractions at their own pace. This means that students can really focus on the courses and, as a result, achieve better results.
  六、假设法
  所谓假设,通常是指在现存的事实和理论的基础上,对某些事物的存在或与其相关的规律所做的推测性的解说或虚拟性的预设。
  因此,假设的重要价值毋庸质疑。创造出一个虚拟的情境,在此情境中进一步论述说明,反而会让之前的论点或主题变的更准确,更具说服力。无论这个假设的场景是顺着主题,还是反向思考,都有其独特的意义和价值。
  同样,假设法和解释说明法都不适合频繁出现,只应作为辅助方式。我们在写作时要时刻注意文章的多样性和广度,不能只局限于某一种方式,应体现出不同的扩展能力,这样才能达到考官所要求的“多样性”。
  引导假设的表达方式有:
  If......., / Providing that.....
  下面再看一例:
  【写作真题】Some people believe that students who go directly from high school to university benefit less than those who take a job or travel in the real world before they enter the university. What’s your opinion?
  【名师献计】In the first place, students will be less hesitant in deciding what to major in as a university student after a period of work or travel in the real world. If they have worked one or two years, students may get to know what kind of knowledge or skills they need in order to have a decent job in the competitive society. Thus they know what they need to learn before entering university.
  以上就是镇江朗阁小编为大家整理的专家指导:如何让你的议论文有话可写,预祝大家在考试中取得好成绩!烤鸭们,加油。

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